Sexual reproduction in plants

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In sexual reproduction the male and female produce specialised sex cells called .
Fertilisation takes place when the male gamete or joins with the female gamete to form a single cell called a .

The sex organs of a plant are contained inside the flower and consist of the , petals, (produce the pollen with the male gametes) and (produce the ovule with the female gamete.)

plant_reproduction.pngStructure of a typical flower

to protect the bud.
to attract insects.
Stamen that consists of two parts; to hold up the anther and the anther, which produces the grains.
that consists of three parts; ovary, which contains the , to hold up the stigma and a stigma that acts as a landing platform for the .

Pollination and fertilisation

The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma is called .

Pollen can be transferred by or by insects.
pollinated flowers have colourful petals and nectar to attract insects. The stamens and carpels are inside the .
pollinated flowers have feathery to collect pollen and that hang outside the flower.

After pollination a grows from the pollen grain to the carrying the male nucleus to the female nucleus and fertilisation takes place.
The fertilised ovule grows into a and the ovary forms the .

Fruits and seeds are dispersed by different methods; wind dispersal (for dandelions), animal dispersal (for berries), self-dispersal (for pea-pods) and water dispersal (for water-lily).

Conditions for germination

The conditions needed for germination are , heat and oxygen.
The stages in the germination of a pea are firstly the or seed coat splits and the root or emerges.
Next the shoot or emerges and grows above ground. Finally the root develops and leaves form on the shoot.